Peru has a privileged geography that has allowed the connection of Peruvian man with the Pacific Ocean, the Amazon basin and the highest navigable lake in the world: the giant Titicaca. For these important routes of communication sail boats of different flags realizing a commercial and cultural exchange of vital importance for the development of the country; Consequently, it is the responsibility of the Peruvian Navy to guarantee security in these areas of strategic importance, for which it has a Naval Power constituted by its operational forces based on two fundamental pillars: the first is the General Command of Operations Of the Pacific, which is in charge of the Surface Force, the Submarine Force, the Naval Aviation Force, the Marine Corps Force and the Special Operations Force. The second pillar is the General Command of Operations of the Amazon, which is in charge of the Gunship Division, the Jungle Infantry Battalion No. 1 and the Air Force Detachment.
On August 3, 1821, the Liberator José de San Martín decreed the creation of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, War and Navy and the Ministry of Finance. The 8 of October of 1821 the captain of ship Jorge Martin Guise assumed the General Command of the Navy. Guise constituting itself with the Generalissimo Jose de San Martín and his minister of War and Marina Bernardo Monteagudo, founders of the National Navy.
On March 17, 1821, months before the proclamation of independence, the brothers Victoriano and Andrés Cárcamo captured the viceregal pailebote Sacramento at the height of Máncora, being taken there for the country. Subsequently, General Don Jose de San Martín, personally and officially received the Sacrament in the port of Huacho, which was re-baptized as Castelli. Becoming the first unit of the squad.
Fifty-nine years of such an audacious event, on March 17, 1880, the double rupture of the Arica blockade by the corvette Union took place; Action developed during the War of the Pacific, heroic action in charge of the captain of ship Don Manuel Villavisencio that meant a laurel of glory for the National Navy. Ameritarizing such historic events, our surface units commemorate their Jubilee date on March 17.
The Navy of Peru was born when the era of sailing was fading, so its first ships only had this type of propulsion; But during the 1830s, steam propulsion began to slowly move the sail and, thanks to the remarkable vision of the Grand Marshal Ramon Castile and Marquesado, Peru ordered the acquisition of the Rimac, the first steam-powered warship in 1845. The ship arrived at Callao on July 27, 1848.
In the following years, Peru acquired mixed propulsion vessels, such as the Amazonas and Apurímac frigates. The frigate Amazonas, maintaining its sail, incorporated the still imperfect screw propeller and became the first South American school ship that went around the world carrying on board 17 Guardiamarinas that realized the trip of instruction between the 25 of October of 1856 to 28 May 1858, relevant antecedent of the history of the Naval School of Peru. The navy lived years of splendor and whose remarkable expression was its action before the Spanish pretensions that succumbed in the combat in Abtao the 7 of February of 1866 and 2 of May of the same year in Callao.
Later, the presence of ships such as Huáscar monitor and the Independencia frigate, and other ships such as the twin corvettes Union and America guaranteed the defense of the Peruvian sea, at least until the end of the 1960s, in the 19th century.
After the Guano and Salitre War, there was a period of recovery of the Navy whose convalescence was echoed among veteran officers of the conflict, a leading spirit of organizational effort, who infused faith and optimism and hope to achieve the former combative capacity of the Navy.
Before World War I, Peru already had a modest but modernized fleet, constituted by the Grau and Bolognesi cruisers that arrived in Peru in 1907, Lima cruiser, teniente Rodríguez cazatorpedero acquired in 1914 and two submersibles, El Ferré And the Palacios.
As an evocative symbol of the eponymous figure of Miguel Grau, the Naval Force of the Pacific in recognition and thanks to the Commander of the monitor Huáscar, has its name one of the cruise ships.
The first BAP Admiral Grau - built in England - insignia of the Peruvian fleet arrived at the port of Callao on August 10, 1907 in convoy with BAP Colonel Bolognesi. The second badge, also of British origin, arrived in Callao on 31 January 1960 from its name in our history: BAP Admiral Grau - of British origin. On July 11, 1973, a Dutch-made cruise ship, the
The first BAP Admiral Grau - built in England - insignia of the Peruvian fleet arrived at the port of Callao on August 10, 1907 in convoy with BAP Colonel Bolognesi. The second badge, also of British origin, arrived in Callao on 31 January 1960 from its name in our history: BAP Admiral Grau - of British origin. On July 11, 1973, a Dutch-made cruise ship, the third vessel named after the hero of Angamos.
It was the destroyer of line BAP Palacios, unit that established the missile era in our Navy and in South America on July 11, 1973 when in convoy with BAP Admiral Grau - the third of this saga - arrived at Callao carrying in their containers Eight Exocet projectiles. This unit of British manufacture displaced 3,600 tons like the BAP Ferré, its twin, incorporated to the Squadron in the same year.
On March 1, 1979 the first missile frigate arrived in Callao: the BAP Carvajal name that evokes one of the heroes of the monitor Huáscar, Melitón Carvajal Ambulodegui. This vessel was commissioned on February 5, 1979.
BAP Villavisencio, also built Italy, became the second missile frigate of our history, its characteristics, systems and equipment are similar to BAP Carvajal. Commissioned on June 25, 1979, joining the Navy on September 7, 1979. His name pays homage to Manuel Villavisencio naval hero, Commander of the glorious corvette Union, whose exceptional action occurred in the double rupture of the blockade of Arica the March 17, 1880.
On July 26, 1984, during the Naval Review, BAP Montero was officially presented. He was put on stands in October of 1978, launching the 8 of October of 1982. Its nomination is reason of right memory to the rear admiral Lizardo Montero Flores, who with Miguel Grau, Aurelio Garci'a and Manuel Ferreyros conformed the four aces of the Navy.
The BAP. Montero represents a milestone in the shipbuilding of Peru. He was in charge of the Navy's Industrial Service in association with the aforementioned Italian shipyard.
The missile frigate BAP. Mariátegui, fourth unit, was placed on the stands of the Industrial Service of the Navy of Callao in October 1979, launched on October 8, 1984 and commissioned on October 10, 1987. Its name testifies a tribute to Ignacio Mariátegui Tellería, notable Who would lead the blockade of the Peruvian naval forces to the Ecuadorian coast as Commander General of the squadron.
In recent years, the Surface Force has been strengthened by incorporating four new units and modernizing existing ones.
The frigates BAP Aguirre (FM 55) and BAP Palacios (FM 56) were incorporated into the Navy on November 3, 2004. These ships were the first in the framework of the Defense Cooperation Agreement between the governments of Italy And Peru.
The BAP Aguirre (FM 55) arrived in Callao on June 11, 2005 and is the fourth unit of this name in the naval history. The year 1978 was incorporated the cruiser portahelicópteros Aguirre discharged 21 years later.
BAP Palacios (FM 56) arrived in Callao on July 27, 2005. He inherited the name of the first missile destroyer in South America, was commissioned for Peru on June 12, 1973. He served 20 years in the Missile Division with his Twin the BAP Ferré.
BAP Bolognesi (FM 57) and BAP Quiñones (FM 58) joined the Navy on January 23, 2006, in a ceremony held in La Spezia, as well as the frigates mentioned above, both vessels underwent a process of enlistment Under the supervision of Peruvian personnel. BAP Bolognesi arrived in Callao on August 18, 2006 and, BAP Quiñones, entered Paita on January 13, 2007.
The frigate BAP Bolognesi, fourth unit in the service of the Navy inherited this nomination after the service of the Dutch destroyer of the same name that was part of the Division of Anti-submarine Destroyers from the 15 of July of 1982 to the 8 of May of 1989 When he was removed from service. The second BAP Coronel Bolognesi, of British origin arrived at Callao on March 19, 1960, served in the Fleet until May 30, 1982, when it was renamed Pontoon Peru (UAI-113), on September 20 of the same year Was discharged. Inaugurated the saga, as first cruising unit that had Peru, Colonel Bolognesi, coming from British grades, this arrived at Callao the 10 of August of 1907 with its twin Admiral Grau.
The frigate BAP Quiñones is the third of this name in the Fleet. The first ship of this nomination was realistado of the BAP Admiral Grau, the 16 of May of 1973, rendering services until 2 of May 1980 in which retired of the inventory. The second Friesland-class destroyer was assigned to the Antisubmarine Destroyer Division in 1980 and decommissioned on 30 April 1992.
On September 30, 1980, the BAP were incorporated into the Navy. Velarde and BAP Santillana, and on November 17 of the same year did the BAP De los Heros. The first pays homage, in his nomination, to Jorge Velarde, a young officer of the Huascar monitor who died on the deck of his ship on May 21, 1879 during the Iquique Combat.
Lieutenant-First Gervasio Santillana Alvarez was one of the three officers who on October 8 made the decision to scuttle the monitor. The third unit honors Carlos of the Heros of the endowment of Huáscar, hero of the combat of Antofagasta 28 of August of 1879.
On February 24, 1981, BAP Herrera was incorporated, BAP Larrea on July 23 and BAP Sánchez Carrión on September 14, names that evoke brilliant sailors who excelled in the naval history of Peru.
BAP landing craft. Paita, BAP. Callao, BAP. Pisco and BAP. Eten were built in 1952 at the Ingalls Ship Building Corp. in Pascagoula, United States. BAP Pisco and BAP Eten joined the Peruvian Navy on March 4, 1985, and BAP Callao and BAP Paita on August 6 of that year.
Although these ships play an important role in supporting the Marine Corps in the course of the operations programmed by the General Operations Command of the Pacific, it is also true that by their type and capacity they serve the country in national emergencies, thus constituting An invaluable element in the mission's mission.
It is the flagship of the Peruvian Squadron, this unit was incorporated to the Peruvian Navy, on March 7, 1973. It was built in the shipyards Wilton Fijendors, schieldman Holland between 1939 and 1944, being commissioned to the Royal Dutch Navy In 1953, under the name HRMS of Ruyter. This Cruise is the third unit named after the Grand Admiral of Peru.
To conduct surface operations, mainly medium-range offshore missile actions, in order to contribute to the fulfillment of the tasks assigned to the Naval Force. "In 2011, the Navy decided to initiate a process of technological updating for the Frigates Missiles.
Execute the Operational Tasks Established in the Plans in Force for the Normal Situation, Internal Defense of the Territory and / or War, in order to contribute to the accomplishment of the objectives assigned to the Command of the Surface Force.
Transport the Landing Force to the target area in support of the Task Force or Task Force of the Maritime Operations Theater and others that the High Command has.
Support the naval forces in order to increase their permanence in the theater of operations as well as to support the populations affected by natural disasters in order to mitigate the damages caused.